The nerves of the hand can be injured through accidents. Occasionally the nerve damages appear as late sensory disturbances at their supply areas or as limited functionality due to paretic muscles. The nerves and their injuries can be microsurgically identified. In the case of an acquired defect due to injury, the nerves can be reconstructed by nerve transplantation employing autologous (body’s own) nerves from the leg or from intact areas of the arm (look under reconstructive surgery and surgery of brachial plexus lesions). Alternatively, instead of using autologous tissue, the employment of artificial nerve replacement material is possible. These products are described as nerve tissue engineering. They serve for the reconstruction and regeneration of the nerves and theoretically can be used on all body locations.